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کلبه آبی - هری استك سالیوان ( Hary Stack Sullivan )
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مدیر وبلاگ : فرزاد

هری استك سالیوان ( Hary Stack Sullivan )

سه شنبه 19 اردیبهشت 1385  ساعت: 12:05 ب.ظ

نوع مطلب :عمومی ،

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وی روانپزشك آمریكایی است كه به سال 1892 پای به عرصه وجود گذاشته و در سال 1949 جهان را وداع گفته است .اساس نظریه وی بر حوادث خارجی به ویژه روابط اجتماعی و روابط با اشخاص اصلی و مهم در زندگی فرد متمركز است .

مراحل رشد از دیدگاه سالیوان عبارتند از :

1-   نوزادگی : از هنگام تولد تا زمانی است كه كودك سخن گفتن ( 5/1 تا 2 سالگی ) را آغاز می كند .

2-   خردسالی : زمانی است كه كودك سخن می گوید . ( 5-2 سالگی )

3- نونهالی : فرد احتیاج به جفت دارد و پیرامون موضوع های پیش از بلوغ نكاتی یاد می گیرد .( پنج تا نه سالگی )

4- دوره پیش از بلوغ : فرد آغاز به ایجاد یك ارتباط صمیمی با افراد جنس مقابل یا با هم جنسان خود می كند . تا آن گاه كه به دوره بلوغ جنسی برسد . ( نه تا دوازده سالگی )

5- دوره بلوغ : در وجود فرد انگیزهای برای ایجاد ارتباط جنسی به وجود می آید كه رفتارهایی از این انگیزه سرچشمه می گیرد .

6- دوره پختگی : فرد به ایجاد یك ارتباط پیشرفته و سازنده و بالغانه با افراد دیگر؛ آغاز می كند . به خویشتن احترام می گزارد و در ارتباط های خود نگرش های دوستانه و همیارانه و همكارانه را بر می گزیند .

در یك نگاه كلی گرا سالیوان را معطوف به نظریه روابط بین فردی در روانپزشكی می بینیم ؛ بدین معنی كه ا عقیده دارد كه روابط بین افراد تجاربی را فراهم می سازد كه در شكل گیری شخصیت بهنجار یا نابهنجار ما اثر تام و مثمر دارد .

-    امروزه هم آنالیزروانی ( روانكاوی ) و هم روانشناسی زیست شناسی موضوعاتی را مدیون نظریات سالیوان اند .

-         روانپزشكی اجتماعی از اصول سالیوان پیدایش و توسعه یافته است .

-    سالیوان پیرامون نیاز به امنیت كه به عقیده او تنها از راه ایجاد روابط بین فردی سالم به فرجامی نیك و دلخواسته می رسد تاكیدی جدی دارد.

-         به عقیده او اضطراب در نوزاد از آشفتگی روابط بین مادر و نوزاد سرچشمه می گیرد .

-    به اعتقاد سالیوان درمان بیمار باید شامل اداره و سازمان دهی وضع بیمار درمحیط اجتماعی خود وی باشد .



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